Essential amino acids PVT. TIM HALL:
Pvt. is short for Private in the military.
Arg and His are considered semiessential.
Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy".
Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids "Truck hit the Ox to Death":
Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles "Muscles LIVe fast":
Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors "Nice GAMs!":
Gam is slang for a person's leg, especiallay an attractive female's leg: "Nice gams = nice legs!"
TCA cycle substrates
"Citrate Is Krebs' Starting Substrate For Making Oxaloacetate"
Citrate, Isocitrate, alpha-Ketoglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate
Trinucleotide repeat disorders"Try hunting for my fried eggs"
MyoTonic dystrophy (CTG)
Friedrich's Ataxia (GAA)
fraGile X syndrome (CGG)
Start and stop codonsAUG inAUGurates transcription
UGA = U Go Away
UAA = U Are Away
UAG = U Are Gone
Fabry disease: presentation FABRY:
Angiokeratomas/ Alpha galactosidase A deficiency
Glycolysis enzymes "High Profile People Act Too Glamorous, Picture Posing Every Place":
Triose phosphate isomerase
Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)
BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD:
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)
G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA:
Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)
Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra The 3 D's of pellagra:
Note vitamin B3 is the 3D's.
Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect
ABCD: Anderson's=Branching enzyme. Cori's=Debranching enzyme.
Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically.
Benzene ring: effects of substituents on further additions
"Benzene likes to ROMP. We HOPED she's be safe, but now she's knocked up. ADOPt or WEDD'M?":
ROMP: Substituents in order: R-group, Ortho, Meta, Para.
HOPED: Halogens are Ortho, Para, Electron withdrawing, Deactivating.
ADOPt: Addititive substituents Direct Ortho & Para.
WEDD'M: Withdrawing Electrons Deactivates, Directs Meta.
Cathode: what happens during electrolysis Current
Carries Cations to the Cathode for reduCtion.
Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature The letter "Z" is written in a zigzag way. If you draw a vertical line splitting it down the
middle then its the same halves (same sides of double bond). The letter "E" is written differently so a vertical line splits it into different halves (different sides of double bond).
Cis/trans (geometric) isomers: arrangement of functional groups
Cis starts with a C and the functional groups form a C. Trans, therefore is the other one by default.
Pompe's disease: type "Police = Po + lys":
Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).
Golgi complex: functions "Golgi Distributes A SPAM":
Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine
Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names
"Oh My, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet
Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose "In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate":
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.
tRNA: molecular shape Fortunately, tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T.
Vitamins: which are fat soluble KADE:
Insulin: function INsulIN stimulates 2
things to go
IN 2cells: Potassium and Glucose.
Glycolysis steps "Goodness Gracious, Father
Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins
(to) Prepare Pies":
'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-. 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.
Citric acid cycle compounds "Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule":
· SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe
Essential amino acids "PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires":
Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.
Orbital names before alphabetical order begins "Sober
People Don't Find Good In Killing":
Orbital names for electrons are S,P,D,F,G,I,K.
After that, alphabetical order begins.
Oxidation vs. reduction: electron gain/loss "LEO the
lion says GER":
Lose Electrons = Oxidation.
Gain Electrons = Reduction.
Benzene ring: order of substituents Meta: the two sticks representing functional groups make a capital letter M with the
ring. Otho: can close the top of the functional groups and make a boxy capital letter O.
Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature "Zame Zide. Epposite.":
Z is the 2 functional groups on the same side of double bond.
E is for opposite sides.
Oxidation vs. reduction: electron gain/loss OIL RIG:
Oxidation Is Loss (of electrons).
Reduction Is Gain (of electrons).
Cation vs. anion: positive vs. negative The t in cation looks like a plus sign: "ca+ion"
Cation is positive, anion is negative.
Oxidation vs. reduction: electrochemical cell and electron gain/loss AN OIL RIG CAT:
At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons.
Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode.
Gibb's free energy formula "Good Honey Tastes Sweet":
(delta)G = H - T(delta)S
Anion vs. cation charge ANion is A Negative ion.
Benzene ring: order of substituents "Benzene likes to
ROMP": From R group moving around the ring:
B vitamin names "The Rhythm Nearly Proved
In increasing order:
"Hunter's are aggressive, clear-sighted, and shoot for the X"
Mild Hurler's syndrome (gargoylism, developmental delay, airway obstruction) with aggressive behavior and without corneal clouding; XLR Deficiency in Iduronate sulfatase
Testosterone conversion to DiHydroTestosterone
Dihydrotestosterone is an active form of testosterone. Its conversion needs an enzyme :
· This reaction occurs in the peripheral ("FAR") tissue such as adipose
DKA: signs DKA:
Ketones/ Kussmaul breathing/ K drops
Amino acids: properties · Sung to the Beverly Hillbillies
Come an' listen to my story about the a-mi-nos
Five Al-i-phats kick off our show
Glycine, Alanine, Valine and then
Leucine and Iso make up half of ten
Well the next thing you know are three aromats
phenylalanine(F) is right off the bat
tYrosine has alcohol next to its ring
And tryptophan(W) has indole double ring thing.
Sulfur in Cysteine; it loves to bond
Sulfur Methionine is much more a snob
Alcoholic Serine, well wouldn't you know,
And Threonine's OH gives a warm glow.
Acid-aspartic(D) and glutamic(E) are ionized
With pK of 4, their protons are lysed,
asparagine(N) and glutamine(Q) play a different role
With amides they're neutral but they both have poles
lysine(K) and aRginine are the basic kind,
But Histidine's imidazole can't make up its mind,
Proline, the last one, coming at the end
It's imine, an oddball, proteins use to bend.
Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient PHenylketonuria
is caused by a deficiency of:
Malate-aspartate shuttle "MAD commute":
Alpha-ketoglutarate and D(Aspartate) out.
DNA bond strength (nucleotides) "Crazy Glue":
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds.
This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.
Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax.
With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.
Sickle cell anemia: mutation "HbS isn't Very Good":
At Sixth position of HB beta chain, Valine is present instead of Glutamic acid.
Hyperglycemia: 3 classic signs and symptoms DKA:
Vitamins: which are fat soluble "The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)":
Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.
Citric acid cycle compounds "Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?":
Na/K pump action (Sing loudly to the chorus of "Kiss Him Goodbye"): "Na, Na, Na -- out! Na, Na, Na -- out! K, K goes...inside!"
Action of pump is 3 Na out and 2 K in
AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them "A
Lighter Lease" (A LyTr LeIs):
A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA
Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test) "Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin":
Both start with vowels, so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated.
Type 1 glycogen storage disease Type 1 = one (Von),ie Von Giereke's disease
Enzymes: competitive inhibitors "Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity":
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases
Fabry's disease FABRY'S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Collagen concisely covered COLLAGEN:
C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor
Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/Osteogenesis imperfecta
Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains
Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions
Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases
Metabolism sites "Use both arms to HUG":
These reactions occur in bothcytoplasm and mitochondria.
Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties "mt DNA".
mt stands for:
Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate)
Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target "CO blocks CO":
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)
Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.
Adrenaline mechanism "ABC of Adrenaline":
Adrenaline--> activates Beta receptors--> increases Cyclic
Citric acid cycle compounds "Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?":
Sickle cell disease pathophysiology SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the
Glucagon function "Mr. Gluca has Gone to the
cAMP to bring out some Glucose":
Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism.
Acids: Lewis acid vs. Bronsted acid BAD LATE:
BAD: Bronsted Acid Donates hydrogens
LATE: Lewis Acid Takes Electrons
Tangier's disease: hallmark "Tangierene tonsils":
Hallmark is large orange tonsils. Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.
Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in.
Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out.
Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right "CADET,
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Coagulation common pathway: factors in order 10 + 5 - 2 =
Coagulation common pathway:
Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII
Vitamin K dependent cofactors "Several Tend
To Nicely Stop Clots":
Factor Seven, Ten, Two, Nine.
Protein S, Protein C.
G protein type for respective receptors "KISS and
KICK till you're SICK of SEX" (QISS and QIQ till you're SIQ of SQS):
This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order:
Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP:
Folic acid antagonists
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Relative folate deficiency
Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms The famous 4 D's:
Death (if untreated)
Citric acid cycle compounds "Our City Is
Kept Safe And Sound From Malice":
Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency GALIPUT:
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.
Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes · With
hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:
RTA type 4
Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
"Stenosis": obstructive uropathy
· With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:
Renal TA type 1 and 2
Urine diversion into gut
Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor When the dentist works on
your teeth, you say, "AAArg! (Arginine)" before he administers Nitric
Oxide (NO) to take the pain away.
Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase, Ca++, NADPH.
Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins,
heme (pyrrole ring) "Dracula wants to Suck a Co-ed's
blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!":
Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole
rings, which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme.
Enzymes: classification "Over The HILL":
Infantile Beriberi symptoms Restlessness
Great heartedness (dilated heart)
Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERI: Breathless/ Big
hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.
Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms "Increased Vitamin A
makes you HARD":
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness