Essential amino acids PVT. TIM HALL:
Phe
Val
Thr
Trp
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Leu
Lys
Pvt. is short for Private in the military.
Arg and His are considered semiessential.
Alternatively: "MATT VIL PHLy".

Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids "Truck hit the Ox to Death":
Transamination
Oxidative decarboxylation
Dehydrogenation

Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles "Muscles LIVe fast":
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine

Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors "Nice GAMs!":
Glycine
Arginine
Methionine
Gam is slang for a person's leg, especiallay an attractive female's leg: "Nice gams = nice legs!"

TCA cycle substrates

"Citrate Is Krebs' Starting Substrate For Making Oxaloacetate"

Citrate, Isocitrate, alpha-Ketoglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate

Trinucleotide repeat disorders"Try hunting for my fried eggs"

Trinucleotide:

Huntington's (CAG)

MyoTonic dystrophy (CTG)

Friedrich's Ataxia (GAA)

fraGile X syndrome (CGG)

Start and stop codonsAUG inAUGurates transcription

UGA = U Go Away

UAA = U Are Away

UAG = U Are Gone

Fabry disease: presentation FABRY:
Ferile episodes
Angiokeratomas/ Alpha galactosidase A deficiency
Burning pain
Renal failure
Youth death

Glycolysis enzymes "High Profile People Act Too Glamorous, Picture Posing Every Place":
Hexokinase
Phosphoglucose isomerase
Phosphofructokinase (PFK)
Aldase A
Triose phosphate isomerase
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Phosphoglycerate mutase
Enolase
Pyruvate kinase

Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's:
Pain in abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)

BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)
Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA:
Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)

Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra The 3 D's of pellagra:
Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
Note vitamin B3 is the 3D's.

Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect
ABCD: Anderson's=Branching enzyme. Cori's=Debranching enzyme.
Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically.

Benzene ring: effects of substituents on further additions
"Benzene likes to ROMP. We HOPED she's be safe, but now she's knocked up. ADOPt or WEDD'M?":
ROMP: Substituents in order: R-group, Ortho, Meta, Para.
HOPEDHalogens are Ortho, Para, Electron withdrawing, Deactivating.
ADOPt: Addititive substituents Direct Ortho & Para.
WEDD'MWithdrawing Electrons Deactivates, Directs Meta.

Cathode: what happens during electrolysis Current 
C
arries Cations to the Cathode for reduCtion.

Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature The letter "Z" is written in a zigzag way. If you draw a vertical line splitting it down the
middle then its the same halves (same sides of double bond). The letter "E" is written differently so a vertical line splits it into different halves (different sides of double bond).

Cis/trans (geometric) isomers: arrangement of functional groups
Cis starts with a C and the functional groups form a C. Trans, therefore is the other one by default.

Pompe's disease: type "Police = Po + lys":
Pompe's disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).

Golgi complex: functions "Golgi Distributes A SPAM":
Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
Proteoglycan assembly
Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine

Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names
"OMy, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet
ASugar!":
Oxalic
Malonic
Succinic
Glutaric
Adipic
Pimelic
Suberic
Azelaic
Sebacic

Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose "In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate":
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.

tRNA: molecular shape Fortunately, tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T.

Vitamins: which are fat soluble KADE:
Vitamin K
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E

Insulin: function INsulIN stimulates 2
things to go
IN 2cells: Potassium and Glucose.

Glycolysis steps "Goodness Gracious, Father
Franklin Did GBy Picking Pumpkins
(to) Prepare Pies":
Glucose
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Fructose-1,6-diP
Dihydroxyacetone-P
Glyceraldehyde-P
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP]
Pyruvate
'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-. 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.

Citric acid cycle compounds "OCitric Acid IOf (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule":
Oxaloacetate
Citrate
Aconitate
Isocitrate
Oxalosuccinate
Alpha-ketoglutarate
SuccinyL-CoA
SuccinaTe
Fumarate
Malate
· SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe

Essential amino acids "PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires":
Phe
Val
Thr
Trp
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Lue
Lys
Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.

Orbital names before alphabetical order begins "Sober
People Don't Find Good IKilling":
Orbital names for electrons are S,P,D,F,G,I,K.
After that, alphabetical order begins.

Oxidation vs. reduction: electron gain/loss "LEO the
lion says GER":
Lose Electrons = Oxidation.
Gain Electrons = Reduction.

Benzene ring: order of substituents Meta: the two sticks representing functional groups make a capital letter M with the
ring. Otho: can close the top of the functional groups and make a boxy capital letter O.

Cis/trans (geometric) isomer nomenclature "Zame Zide. Epposite.":
Z is the 2 functional groups on the same side of double bond.
E is for opposite sides.

Oxidation vs. reduction: electron gain/loss OIL RIG:
Oxidation ILoss (of electrons).
Reduction IGain (of electrons).

Cation vs. anion: positive vs. negative The t in cation looks like a plus sign: "ca+ion"
Cation is positive, anion is negative.

Oxidation vs. reduction: electrochemical cell and electron gain/loss AN OIL RIG CAT:
At the ANode, Oxidation Involves Loss of electrons.
Reduction Involves Gaining electrons at the CAThode.

Gibb's free energy formula "Good Honey Tastes Sweet":
(delta)G = H - T(delta)S

Anion vs. cation charge ANion is A Negative ion.

Benzene ring: order of substituents "Benzene likes to 
ROMP
": From R group moving around the ring:
R group
Ortho
Meta
Para

B vitamin names "The Rhythm Nearly Proved
Contagious":
In increasing order:
Thiamine (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyridoxine (B6)
Cobalamin (B12)

Hunter's syndrome

"Hunter's are aggressive, clear-sighted, and shoot for the X"

Mild Hurler's syndrome (gargoylism, developmental delay, airway obstruction) with aggressive behavior and without corneal clouding; XLR  Deficiency in Iduronate sulfatase

Testosterone conversion to DiHydroTestosterone
Dihydrotestosterone is an active form of testosterone. Its conversion needs an enzyme :
Five
Alpha
Reductase
· This reaction occurs in the peripheral ("FAR") tissue such as adipose
tissue.

DKA: signs DKA:
Dehydrated
Ketones/ Kussmaul breathing/ K drops
Acidosis

Amino acids: properties · Sung to the Beverly Hillbillies
melody:
Come an' listen to my story about the a-mi-nos
Five Al-i-phats kick off our show
Glycine, Alanine, Valine and then
Leucine and Iso make up half of ten

Well the next thing you know are three aromats
phenylalanine(F) is right off the bat
tYrosine has alcohol next to its ring
And tryptophan(W) has indole double ring thing.

Sulfur in Cysteine; it loves to bond
Sulfur Methionine is much more a snob
Alcoholic Serine, well wouldn't you know,
And Threonine's OH gives a warm glow.

Acid-aspartic(D) and glutamic(E) are ionized
With pK of 4, their protons are lysed,
asparagine(N) and glutamine(Q) play a different role
With amides they're neutral but they both have poles

lysine(K) and aRginine are the basic kind,
But Histidine's imidazole can't make up its mind,
Proline, the last one, coming at the end
It's imine, an oddball, proteins use to bend.

Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient PHenylketonuria
is caused by a deficiency of:
Phenylalanine
Hydroxylase

Malate-aspartate shuttle "MAD commute":
Malate in.
Alpha-ketoglutarate and D(Aspartate) out.

DNA bond strength (nucleotides) "Crazy Glue":
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds.
This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.

Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax.
With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.

Sickle cell anemia: mutation "HbS isn't Very Good":
At Sixth position of HB beta chain, Valine is present instead of Glutamic acid.

Hyperglycemia: 3 classic signs and symptoms DKA:
Dehydrated
Ketoacidosis
Acetone breath

Vitamins: which are fat soluble "The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)":
Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.

Citric acid cycle compounds "Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?":
Oxaloacetate
Citrate
Isocitrate
Ketoglutarate
Succinyl coA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate

Na/K pump action (Sing loudly to the chorus of "Kiss Him Goodbye"): "NaNaNa -- outNaNa, Na -- outKK goes...inside!"
Action of pump is 3 Na out and 2 K in

AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them "A
Lighter Lease
" (A LyTr LeIs):
A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA
Ly=Lysine
Tr=Tryptophan
Le=Leucine
Is=Isoleucine

Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test) "Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin":
Both start with vowels, so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated.

Type 1 glycogen storage disease Type 1 = one (Von),ie Von Giereke's disease

Enzymes: competitive inhibitors "Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity":
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases

Fabry's disease FABRY'S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Sphingolipidoses

Collagen concisely covered COLLAGEN:
C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor
Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/Osteogenesis imperfecta
Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains
Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions
Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases

Metabolism sites "Use both arms to HUG":
Heme synthesis
Urea cycle
Gluconeogenesis
These reactions occur in bothcytoplasm and mitochondria.

Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties "mt DNA".
mt stands for:
Maternal Transfer
Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate)

Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target "CO blocks CO":
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)

Electron transport chain: Rotenone's site of action Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.

Adrenaline mechanism "ABC of Adrenaline":
Adrenaline--> activates Beta receptors--> increases Cyclic
AMP

Citric acid cycle compounds "Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?":
Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha Ketogluterate
Succinyl CoA
Succinate
Fumerate
Malate
Oxaloacetate

Sickle cell disease pathophysiology SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the
B chain.

Glucagon function "Mr. Gluca has Gone to the
cAMP to bring out some Glucose":
Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism.


Acids: Lewis acid vs. Bronsted acid BAD LATE:
BADBronsted Acid Donates hydrogens
LATELewis Acid Takes Electrons

Tangier's disease: hallmark "Tangierene tonsils":
Hallmark is large orange tonsils. Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.

Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in.
Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out.

Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right "CADET,
face right!":
CO2
Acid
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Exercise
Temperature

Coagulation common pathway: factors in order 10 + 5 - 2 =
13

Coagulation common pathway:
Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII

Vitamin K dependent cofactors "Several Ten
To
 Nicely Stop Clots":
Factor Seven, TenTwoNine.
Protein S, Protein C.

G protein type for respective receptors "KISS and 
KICK
 till you're SICK of SEX" (QISS and QIQ till you're SIQ of SQS):
This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order:
alpha1=Q
alpha2=I
beta1=S
beta3=S
M1=Q
M2=I
M3=Q
D1=S
D2=I
H1=Q
H2=S
V1=Q
V2=S

Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP:
Alcoholism
Folic acid antagonists
Oral contraceptives
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Celiac sprue
Dilatin
Relative folate deficiency
Old
Pregnant

Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms The famous 4 D's:
Diarrhoea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Death (if untreated)

Citric acid cycle compounds "Our CitIs
Kept Safe And Sound From Malice":
Oxaloacetate
Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl-CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate

Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency GALIPUT:
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.

Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes · With
hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:
RTA type 4
Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
"Stenosis": obstructive uropathy
Early uremia
· With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:
Renal TA type 1 and 2
Diarrhoea
Urine diversion into gut
Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
Ex-hyperventilation

Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor When the dentist works on
your teeth, you say, "AAArg! (Arginine)" before he administers Nitric
Oxide (NO)
 to take the pain away.
Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase, Ca++, NADPH.

Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins,
heme (pyrrole ring)
 "Dracula wants to Suck a Co-ed's
blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!":
Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole
rings, which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme.

Enzymes: classification "Over The HILL":
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Isomerases
Ligases
Lyases

Infantile Beriberi symptoms Restlessness
Sleeplessness
Breathlessness
Soundlessness (aphonia)
Eatlessness (anorexia)
Great heartedness (dilated heart)
Alternatively: Get 5 of 'em with BERIBreathless/ Big
hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.

Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms "Increased Vitamin A
makes you HARD":
Headache/ Hepatomegaly
Anorexia/ Alopecia
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness