Pharmacology:

Sulfonamides: common characteristics SULFA:
S-Steven-Johnson syndrome
U-Urine precipitation/ Useful for UTI
L-Large spectrum
F-Folic acids synthesis blocker
A-Analog of PABA

Diuretics: groups “Leak Over The CAN“:
L-Loop diuretics
O-Osmotics
T-Thiazides
C-Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
A-Aldosterone inhibitors
N-Na (sodium) channel blockers

Tuberculosis: treatment If you forget your TB drugs, you’ll
die and might need a PRIEST“:
P-Pyrazinamide
R-Rifampin
I-Isoniazid (INH)
E-Ethambutol
St-Streptomycin

Aminoglycosides: common characteristics AMINO:
A- Active Against Aerobic gram negative
M-echanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes
I– Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit
N- Nephrotoxic
O- Ototoxic

Carbamazepine (CBZ): use CBZ:

        C-Cranial Nerve V (trigeminal) neuralgia
        B-Bipolar disorder
        Z-Zeisures

Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:

         M-Myosis
         O-Out of it (sedation)
         R-Respiratory depression
         P-Pneumonia (aspiration)
         H-Hypotension
         I-Infrequency (constipation, urinary)
         N-Nausea
         E-Emesis

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA): Side effects TCA’S:

         T-Thrombocytopenia
         C-Cardiac (arrhythmia, MI, stroke)
         A-Anticholinergic (tachycardia, etc)
         S-Seizures

Corticosteroids: adverse side effects CUSHINGS BAD MD:
C-Cataracts
U-Up all night (sleep disturbances)
S-Suppression of HPA axis
H-Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
I-Infections
N-Necrosis (avascular)
G-Gain weight
S-Striae
B-Bone loss (osteoporosis)
A-Acne
D-Diabetes
M-Myopathy, moon faces
D-Depression and emotional changes

Microtubules: drugs that act on microtubules. “The MicroTubule Growth Voiding Chemicals”:
T-Thiabendazole
M-Mebendazole
T-Taxol
G-Griseofulvin
V-Vincristine/ Vinblastine
C-Colchicine

Opiods: mu receptor effects “MD CARES“:
M-Miosis
D-Dependency
C-Constipation
A-Analgesics
R-Respiratory depression
E-Euphoria
S-Sedation

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD:
Alpha = Constrict.
Beta = Dilate.

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF:
A-Alkylating agents
B-Bleomycin
C-Cisplastin
D-Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
E-Etoposide
F-Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen,
leuprolide)

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE:
A-Amiodarone
P-Procainamide
A-Arsenium
C-Cisapride
H-Haloperidol
E-Eritromycin

Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members CHAMP:
C-Cyclophosphamide
H-Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
A-Auranofin and other gold compounds
M-Methotrexate
P-Penicillamine

Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM:
H-Hyperthermia
A-Autonomic instability (delirium)
R-Rigidity
M-Myoclonus

Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS:
B-Bretylium
I-Ibutilide
A-Amiodarone
S-Sotalol

K+ increasing agents K-BANK:
K-K-sparing diuretic
B-Beta blocker
A-ACEI
N-NSAID
K-Ksupplement

SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
A-Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
B-Barbiturates
C-Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
D-Diuretic (thiazide)

Parkinsonism: drugs SALAD:
S-Selegiline
A-Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)
L-L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)
A-Amantadine
D-Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide)

Thrombolytic agents USA:
U-Urokinase
S-Streptokinase
A-Alteplase (tPA)

Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
P-Physical dependence
E-Euphoria
A-Analgesia
R-Respiratory depression

Morphine: effects MORPHINES:
M-Miosis
O-Orthostatic hypotension
R-Respiratory depression
P-Pain supression
H-Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations
I-Increased ICT
N-Nausea
E-Euphoria
S-Sedation

Anticholinergic side effects “Know the ABCD’S of
anticholinergic side effects”:
A-Anorexia
B-Blurry vision
D-Constipation/ Confusion
D-Dry Mouth
D-Sedation/ Stasis of urine

Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IV MBA College
· In order of class I to IV:
M-Membrane stabilizers (class I)
B-Beta blockers
A-Action potential widening agents
C-Calcium channel blockers

Teratogenic drugs “WTERATOgenic”:
W-Warfarin
T-Thalidomide
E-Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
R-Retinoid
A-ACE inhibitor
T-Third element: lithium
O-OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)

Epilepsy types, drugs of choice “Military General
Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing ‘Veni
Vedi Veci’ After Crushing Enemies”:
·Epilepsy types:
M-Myoclonic
G-Grand mal
A-Atonic
W-West syndrome
F-Focal
P-Petit mal (absence)
· Respective drugsy:
V-Valproate
V-Valproate
VValproate
A-ACTH
C-Carbamazepine
E-Ethosuximide

Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs “Go BAN Me!”:
Go-Gold
B-Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
A-Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
N-Nitrofurantoin
M-Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide

Respiratory depression inducing drugs “STOP
breathing”:
S-Sedatives and hypnotics
T-Trimethoprim
O-Opiates
P-Polymyxins

Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in
liver failure)
 LOT:
L-Lorazepam
O-Oxazepam
T-Temazepam

TB: antibiotics used STRIPE:
St-STreptomycin
R-Rifampicin
I-Isoniazid
P-Pyrizinamide
E-Ethambutol

Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABATrIn:
ViGABA Transferase Inhibition

Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism It inhibits PTU:
P-Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
T-Tyrosine iodination
U-Union (coupling)

Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers “Tim Pinches
His Nasal Problem” (because he has a runny nose…):
Tim-Timolol
Pin-Pindolol
His-Hismolol
Na-Naldolol
Pro-Propranolol

Enoxaparin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
monitoring
 EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.

Nicotinic effects MTWTF (days of week):
M-Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
T-Tachycardia
W-Weakness
T-Twitching
H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
F-Fasiculation

Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
S-Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
L-Lacrimation
U-Urination
G-Gastrointestinal upset
B-Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
A-Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
M-Miosis

Hypertension: treatment ABCD:
ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists
also)
B-Beta blockers
C-Calcium antagonists
D-Diuretics (sometimes vasoDilators also)

Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
P-P-450 interactions
H-Hirsutism
EEnlarged gums
N-Nystagmus
Y-Yellow-browning of skin
T-Teratogenicity
O-Osteomalacia
I-Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
N-Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache

Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
D-Digoxin
I-Isoniazid
S-Spironolactone
C-Cimetidine
O-Oestrogens
S-Stilboestrol

Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P’s:
P-Prolongs action potential duration
P-Photosensitivity
P-Pigmentation of skin
P-Peripheral neuropathy
PPulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
P-Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidis

Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart
that rolls on pinwheels.
Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively,
making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.

Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP:
L-Lipid soluble
M-Miotic
N-Natural
O-Orally absorbed well
P-Physostigmine
· Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
Water soluble
Used in myesthenia gravis
Synthetic
Poor oral absorption

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members “PIT of
despair”:
P-Phenelzine
I-Isocarboxazid
T-Tranylcypromine

Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy MCAT:
M-Metronidazole
C-Chloramphenicol
A-Aminoglycoside
T-Tetracycline

Etoposide: action, indications, side effect “eTOPoside”:
· Action:
Inhibits TOPoisomerase II
· Indications:
T-Testicular carcinoma
O-Oat cell carcinoma of lung
P-Prostate carcinoma
· Side effect:
Affects TOP of your head, causing alopecia

Antimuscarinics: members, action “Inhibits Parasympathetic
And Sweat”:
I-Ipratropium
P-Pirenzepine
A-Atropine
S-Scopolamine
· Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in
sympathetic.

Lithium: side effects LITHIUM:
L-Leukocytes Increased (leukocytosis)
T-Tremors
H-Hypothyroidism
I-Increased Urine
M-Moms beware (teratogenic)

Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
G-Glycerol
U-Urea
M-Mannitol

Narcotics: side effects “SCRAM if you see a drug
dealer”:
S-Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
C-Constipation
R-Respiratory depression
A-Addiction
M-Miosis

Benzodiazepines: antidote “Ben is off with the
flu“:
Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.

SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
S-Serotonin syndrome
S-Stimulate CNS
R-Reproductive disfunctions in male
I-Insomnia

Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
P-Propranolol
R-Reserpine
O-Oral contraceptives
M-Methyldopa
S-Steroids

Sex hormone drugs: male “Feminine Males Need
Testosterone“:
F-Fluoxymesterone
M-Methyltestosterone
N-Nandrolone
Testosterone

Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH:
C-Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
A-Angina
M-Migranes
A-Atrial flutter, fibrillation
S-Supraventricular tachycardia
H-Hypertension

Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolismI‘m Overly Calm”:
I-Isoniazid
O-Oral contraceptive pills
C-Cimetidine

Warfarin: metabolism SLOW:
· Has a slow onset of action.
· A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
S-Small lipid-soluble molecule
L-Liver: site of action
O-Oral route of administration.
W-Warfarin

Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
B-Bradycardia & hypotension
A-Anorexia
D-Diminished pupilary size
A-Analgesics
M-Miosis
E-Euphoria
R-Respiratory depression
I-Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
C-Constipation
A-Ameliorate cough reflex
N-Nausea and vomiting
S-Sedations

Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a
TE-TEratogen that causes staining of
TEeth in the newborn.

Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine eDrophonium
is for Diagnosis.
pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.

Narcotic antagonists The Narcotic Antagonists
are NAloxone and NAltrexone.
· Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose

Inhalation anesthetics SHINE:
S-Sevoflurane
H-Halothane
I-Isoflurane
N-Nitrous oxide
E-Enflurane

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs “PM PMT” as
in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
P-Procarbazine
M-Metronidazole
PMT-Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
A-Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
C-Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
U-Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
T-Theophylline
E-Ethanol
C-Corticosteroids
H-H2 blockers
A-Antiparkinsonian drugs
N-Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
G-Geriatric psychiatric drugs
E-ENT drugs
I-Insomnia drugs
N-NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
M-Muscle relaxants
S-Seizure medicines

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
D-Dopamine
I-Isoproterenol
N-Norepinephrine
E-Epinephrine
D-Dobutamine

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
N-Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
F-Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
A-Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
M-Mental retardation
E-Electrolyte imbalance
T-Tolerance
H-Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
psYcological upset
L-Lactation in female
D-Dry mouth
O-Oedema
P-Parkinsonism
A-Anaemia (haemolytic)

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
B-Buffalo hump
E-Easy bruising
C-Cataracts
L-Larger appetite
O-Obesity
M-Moonface
E-Euphoria
T-Thin arms & legs
H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
A-Avascular necrosis of femoral head
S-Skin thinning
O-Osteoporosis
N-Negative nitrogen balance
E-Emotional liability

Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
V-Vomiting
A-Alopecia
L-Liver toxicity
P-Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
R-Retention of fats (weight gain)
O-Oedema (peripheral oedema)
A-Appetite increase
T-Tremor
E-Enzyme inducer (liver)

Lithium: side effects LITH:
L-Leukocytosis
I-Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria] T-Tremor/ Teratogenesis
H-Hypothyroidism

Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
A-Anemia
B-Basophilic stripping
C-Colicky pain
D-Diarrhea
E-Encephalopathy
F-Foot drop
G-Gum (lead line)

Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
A-Asthma
B-Block (heart block)
C-COPD
D-Diabetes mellitus
E-Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

Metabolism enzyme inducers “Randy’s Black Car
Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
R-Rifampin
B-Barbiturates
C-Carbamazepine
G-Grisoefulvin
P-Phenytoin
P-Phenobarb

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
these, you will be “LESS DUMB“:
L-Lacrimation
E-Excitation of nicotinic synapses
S-Salivation
S-Sweating
D-Diarrhea
U-Urination
M-Micturition
B-Bronchoconstriction

Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body “Stick
it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
Stick = Injection
Sniff = inhalation
Suck = ingestion
Soak = absorption

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis “Very
A-Angry Hepatocytes”:
V-Valproic acid
A-Acetaminophen
H-Halothane

Bleomycin: action “BleoMycin Blow
My
 DNA to bits”:
Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location “You have 1 heart
and 2 lungs“:
Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

Beta-blockers: side effects “BBC Loses Viewers
IRochedale”:
B-Bradycardia
B-Bronchoconstriction
C-Claudication
L-Lipids
V-Vivid dreams & nightmares
I- -ve Inotropic action
R-Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia

Cisplatin: major side effect, action “Ci-SplatIn“:
Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
anti-nausea drug needed.
Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.

Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.